Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Explained

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Explained

July 18, 2023 admin 0 Comments

What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease?

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterised by long-term breathing difficulties and airflow limitation. It is a chronic and incurable condition that primarily affects the lungs but can also have systemic effects on other organs and systems in the body.

What Causes Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease?

The primary cause of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is long-term exposure to irritants that damage the lungs. The most common risk factor for developing COPD is smoking, including active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. Cigarette smoke contains numerous harmful chemicals that can irritate and inflame the airways, leading to chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

However, not all individuals with COPD are smokers. Other factors that can contribute to the development of COPD include:

Environmental factors

Long-term exposure to air pollution, both outdoor and indoor, such as fumes, dust, chemicals, and biomass fuel used for cooking and heating in poorly ventilated spaces.

Occupational exposure

Prolonged dust, chemicals, and fumes exposure in certain occupations, such as coal mining, construction, manufacturing, and firefighting.

COPD Article

Genetic factors

Genetic factors cause a small percentage of COPD cases. A deficiency in a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) can lead to the development of emphysema, especially in individuals who smoke.

Respiratory infections

Repeated respiratory infections, particularly severe lower respiratory tract infections, can cause lung damage over time and increase the risk of developing COPD.

It’s important to note that not everyone exposed to these risk factors will develop COPD. Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition or other underlying factors that make them more susceptible to lung damage and the development of COPD.

It is worth mentioning that COPD is a preventable disease in many cases. The most effective preventive measure is to avoid or stop smoking. Additionally, reducing exposure to environmental pollutants and occupational hazards can help lower the risk of developing COPD.

What are the Symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease?

The symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) can vary in severity and may develop gradually over time. The most common symptoms include:

Breathlessness (dyspnea)

This is the hallmark symptom of COPD. It may initially occur during physical exertion and later progress to breathlessness during routine activities or even at rest as the disease advances.

Chronic cough

A persistent cough is a common symptom of COPD. The cough may be intermittent or continuous and often worsens in the morning. It may produce mucus (sputum) that is usually clear, white, or yellowish.

Excessive mucus production

People with COPD often have increased mucus production in their airways, leading to a sensation of mucus build-up and a need to clear the throat frequently.


Many individuals with COPD experience wheezing, a high-pitched whistling sound during breathing. Narrowed airways cause wheezing due to inflammation and obstruction.

Chest tightness

A feeling of pressure or tightness in the chest can occur due to narrowed airways and reduced lung function.


COPD can cause fatigue and a general feeling of tiredness due to the increased effort required to breathe and the reduced efficiency of oxygen exchange in the lungs.


Frequent respiratory infections

COPD can make individuals more prone to respiratory infections, such as colds, bronchitis, and pneumonia. These infections can worsen COPD symptoms and lead to exacerbations (flare-ups) of the disease.

As COPD progresses, symptoms may worsen, leading to limitations in daily activities, reduced exercise tolerance, unintended weight loss, and decreased quality of life.

It’s important to note that these symptoms can also be present in other respiratory conditions, so an accurate diagnosis by a healthcare professional is crucial. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms or have concerns about your respiratory health, seeking medical attention for proper evaluation and diagnosis is advisable.

How is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treated?

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) treatment aims to alleviate symptoms, slow disease progression, improve lung function and enhance overall quality of life. The treatment approach for COPD typically involves a combination of the following:

Lifestyle changes

  • Smoking cessation: Quitting smoking is the most crucial step in managing COPD. It can significantly slow down the progression of the disease and improve symptoms.
  • Avoiding exposure to irritants: Minimise exposure to secondhand smoke, air pollutants, chemicals, and occupational hazards that can worsen symptoms.


  • Bronchodilators: These medications help relax and widen the airways, making breathing easier. They are usually inhaled and can be short-acting (used as needed) or long-acting (taken regularly).
  • Inhaled corticosteroids: These medications help reduce airway inflammation and are often combined with bronchodilators, especially for individuals with more severe COPD or frequent exacerbations.
  • Oral corticosteroids: In some cases, short courses of oral corticosteroids may be prescribed during exacerbations to reduce inflammation and improve symptoms.

Pulmonary rehabilitation

This comprehensive program involves exercise training, education, and support to improve overall physical condition, reduce breathlessness, and enhance the ability to perform daily activities. It often includes breathing exercises, strength training, and nutritional guidance.

Oxygen therapy

Supplemental oxygen therapy may be prescribed for individuals with advanced COPD and low oxygen levels in the blood. It can improve oxygen levels, reduce breathlessness, and enhance the quality of life.


Yearly flu vaccinations and periodic pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended to reduce the risk of respiratory infections that can worsen COPD symptoms.

Surgical interventions

In some cases, surgical options may be considered for individuals with severe COPD:

  • Lung volume reduction surgery: This procedure involves removing damaged portions of the lung to improve lung function and reduce breathlessness.
  • Lung transplantation: A lung transplant may be an option for individuals with end-stage COPD and significant lung function impairment.

Management of COPD also involves regular monitoring of symptoms, lung function, and exacerbations, as well as adjusting treatment as needed. Individuals with COPD must work closely with healthcare professionals to develop an individualised treatment plan and receive ongoing support.

Additionally, lifestyle modifications such as regular physical activity, maintaining a healthy diet, managing comorbidities (such as heart disease), and practising good respiratory hygiene can all contribute to the overall management and well-being of individuals with COPD.